Under review

Cohen C, Baird M, Koirola N, Kandrack R, Martsolf GR. The surgical and anesthesia workforce and provision of surgical services in rural communities: A mixed-methods examination. Revise and resubmit.

In preparation for submission

Patel E, Kandrack R. Differences in the number of services provided by advanced practice nurses and physicians in ambulatory care visits.

In progress

Kandrack R. The effect of Medicaid expansion on physician labor supply.

Kandrack R, Fraher EP, Holmes GM. Rural-urban differences in primary care scope of practice.

Peer-reviewed journal publications

Martsolf GR, Kandrack R, Schneider EC, Friedberg MW. Categories of practice transformation in a statewide medical home pilot and their association with medical home recognition. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2015 Jun; 30(6), 817-823.

Kandrack R, Mehrotra A, DeVries A, Wu S, SooHoo N, Martsolf GR. Patient use of cost and quality information for choosing joint replacement providers in the context of reference pricing. Health Services Research & Managerial Epidemiology, January-December 2015 vol. 2.

Martsolf GR, Kandrack R, Friedberg MW, Gabbay R. Cost of transformation among primary care practices participating in a medical home pilot. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2016 Jul; 31(7): 723-31.

Martsolf GR, Gibson T, Benevent R, Erlich E, Jiang J, Stocks C, Kandrack R, and Auerbach DI. An examination of hospital nurse staffing and patient experience with care: Differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates. Health Services Research, 2016 Dec; 51(6): 2221-2241.

Grant S, Kandrack R, Motala A, Shanman R, Booth M, Miles J, Sorbero ME, Hempel S. Acupuncture for substance use disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 2016 Jun 1; 163: 1-15.

Martsolf GR, Barret ML. Weiss A, Kandrack R, Washington R, Steiner CA, Mehrotra A, SooHoo N, Coffey R. Impact of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on risk-adjusted hospital readmission rates following hip and knee arthroplasty. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2016 Aug 16; 98(16): 1332-1339.

Martsolf GR, Fingar K, Coffey R, Kandrack R, Charland T, Eibner C, Elixhauser A, Steiner C, Mehrotra A. Association between the opening of retail clinics and low-acuity emergency department visits. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2017 Apr; 69(4): 397-403.

Maglione MA, Hempel S, Maher AR, Ewing B, Colaiaco B, Newberry S, Kandrack R, Shanman RM, Sorbero ME. Efficacy of Mindfulness Meditation for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Addictive Behaviors. 2017 Jun; 69: 27-34.

Martsolf GR, Kandrack R, Baird M, Friedberg MW. Estimating associations between medical home adoption, utilization, and quality: A comparison of evaluation approaches. Medical Care, 2018 Jan; 56(1): 25-30.

Petersen ER, Rubenstein L, Kandrack R, Danz M, Belsher B, Motala A, Booth M, Larkin J, Hempel S. Elusive search for effective provider interventions: A systematic review of provider interventions to increase uptake of evidence-based treatment for depression. Implementation Science, 2018 Jul; 13(1): 99.

Martsolf GR, Kandrack R, Friedberg MW, Briscombe B, Hussey PS, Labonte C. Estimating the costs of implementing comprehensive primary care: A narrative review. Health Services Research & Managerial Epidemiology, 2019 Apr 30; 6:23333928198424846.

Kandrack R, Martsolf GR, Reid RO, Friedberg MW. Describing primary care physician migration patterns and their implications for workforce distribution. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2019 Jul; 34(7): 1108-1109.

Martsolf GR, Kandrack R, Rodakowski J, Friedman E, Beach S, Folb B, James AE. Work performance among informal caregivers: Review of the literature. Journal of Aging and Health, in press.

Kandrack R, Barnes H, Martsolf GR. Nurse practitioner scope of practice regulations and nurse practitioner supply. Medical Care Research and Review, in press.

Germack HD, Kandrack R, Martsolf GR. When rural hospitals close, the local physician workforce goes. Health Affairs, in press.

Peer-reviewed reports

Grant S, Hempel S, Kandrack R, Motala A, Shanman RM, Booth M, Miles J, Dudley W, and Sorbero ME. Needle Acupuncture for Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review. RAND Research Report, 2015. RR-1030.

Sorbero ME, Ahluwalia S, Reynolds K, Lovejoy SL, Farris C, Sloan J, Miles J, Vaughan CA, Kandrack R, Apaydin E, Colaiaco B, Herman PA. Meditation for Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review. RAND Research Report, 2015. RR-1138.

Sorbero ME, Reynolds K, Colaiaco B, Lovejoy SL, Farris C, Vaughan CA, Sloan J, Kandrack R, Apaydin E, Herman PA. Acupuncture for Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review. RAND Research Report, 2015. RR-1135.

Hussey PS, Ringel J, et al. Resources and Capabilities of the Department of Veterans Affairs to Provide Timely and Accessible Care to Veterans. RAND Research Report, 2015. RR-1165z2.

Hosek S, Sorbero ME, Martsolf GR, Kandrack R. Introducing Value-Based Purchasing into TRICARE Reform. RAND Research Perspective, 2016. PE-195.

Martsolf GR, Kandrack R. The Impact of Establishing a Full Scope of Practice for Nurse Practitioners in Michigan. RAND Research Report, 2016. RR-1639.

Friedberg MW, Martsolf GR, White C, Auerbach DI, Kandrack R, Reid RO, Butcher E, Yu H, Hollands S, Nie X. Evaluation of Policy Options for Increasing the Availability of Primary Care Services in Rural Washington State. RAND Research Report, 2016. RR-1620.

Martsolf GR, Kandrack R. The Impact of Establishing Full Scope of Practice for Advanced Practice Registered Nurses in the State of Indiana. RAND Research Report, 2017. RR-1864.

Pedersen ER, Kandrack R, Danz M, Motala A, Booth M, Larkin J, Hempel S. Provider Interventions to Increase Uptake of Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression: A Systematic Review. RAND Research Report, 2018. RR-2111-OSD.

Friedberg MW, Martsolf GR, Tomoaia-Cotisel A, Mendel P, McBain RK, Raaen L, Kandrack R, Qureshi NS, Etchegaray JM, Briscombe B, Hussey PS. Practice Expenses Associated with Comprehensive Primary Care Capabilities. RAND Research Report, 2018. RR-2495-CMS.

Sorbero ME, Lovejoy SL, Kandrack R, Taylor EA, Bouskill KE. Types and Costs of Services for Dual Beneficiaries by Medicare Advantage Health Plans: An Environmental Scan. RAND Research Report, 2018. RR-2213-ASPEC.

books and book chapters

Kandrack, R., & Lundberg, G. On the Influence of Emotion on Decision Making: The Case of Charitable Giving. In Human-Centric Decision-Making Models for Social Sciences, 2014: pp. 57-73. Springer.

The Urban Child Institute and RAND Corporation (contributing author). Off to a Good Start: Social and Emotional Development of Memphis’ Children. Memphis, TN and Santa Monica, CA: The Urban Child Institute and RAND Corporation, 2015.


Research interests

  • How changes in primary care organization and payment affect care delivery

  • Health care labor markets

  • Productivity and efficiency

  • Applied econometrics and causal inference


  • Coming soon!

google scholar